It's far better to use fill-in flash.

Fill the frame People shots vary from close up head-shots to full-length. Take advantage of a wall, post or any other means of steadying support. For example, branches of a tree in the foreground, a building in the middle ground and mountains in the background assist the eye by drawing it from one element to the next. Use the frame of a doorway, arch, or trees to emphasize the main subject. Compensate by reducing the aperture size by 1 to 2 F-stops. In outdoor portraits, avoid direct sunlight into the subject's eyes causing squinting. But some of the best shots are often taken as the sun breaks through a cloud sky, particularly just after a storm. In this way you can look directly at and talk to your model.

Add scale When taking a photograph, you are there, experiencing the surroundings. Position points of interest or areas of colour a third of the way up, and/or along the frame. To see true results, use transparency film.

Stop down If you take a shot of a scene with extreme light contrasts, such as a snow-capped mountain between dark cliffs, the mountain is likely to look washed out or have even disappeared when the picture is printed. Taking a shot of a crowded street or children playing can also add interesting movement, if taken at a relatively slow speed. But for the person who sees only the finished picture, it's difficult to judge scale. This cannot be automatically corrected during processing - you get what you shoot. Use both hands, rest your elbows on your chest and hold your breath as you release the shutter. If you use a digital camera you can check the result immediately and re-shoot until you get the effect you're looking for. If you're lucky and have the patience to wait, the sun may strike just the right spot in the scene to make a perfect picture. When using a lens with a long focal length, choose a shutter speed at least as fast as the focal length. You'll need a slow film and a small aperture if it's a bright day. Use a tripod and remote shutter release.

Portraits For close-up shots, use linsheng a lens with a focal length of about 100 mm to keep the face in its normal proportions. A garden may be interesting if you're taking a portrait of a gardener, but otherwise concentrate on the subject and keep the picture uncluttered.

with a winding road leading to an interesting tree, mountain or building etc. For example if the focal length is 100 mm, set the shutter speed to at least 1/100 sec. Putting a point of interest dead centre usually makes for a dull picture.

Composition As a basic guide, use the "rule of thirds". This applies to all subjects, including still life, not just people.

Avoid camera shake Hold the camera steady. Focus on the eyes, because this is where we normally look. Try to lead the eye through the picture e. Experiment with exposure times of about 1/15 to 1/60 sec. These elements add impact.

Add movement Add movement to a still photograph. It also provides space between you and your model and is therefore less intrusive. Use a tripod for shutter speeds of less than 1/60 sec. A waterfall will look as if it is flowing if you use a tripod and an exposure of 1 to 2 seconds. Whatever you choose, fill the frame with your subject, don't leave lots of space around them unless it adds information. Using a tripod means the surroundings will stay sharp, enhancing the feeling of movement. A wide angle lens can extend this perspective, whilst a long focal-length can compress it. Try and find a main point of interest, even in a landscape and exclude the unnecessary. This helps to put your model at ease and draw out his or her character. Choose a wide aperture to reduce the depth of field and blur any disturbing background elements. For outdoor shots, the best light is found during the first two and last two hours of the day, when the sun strikes at a low angle. However, this does not help if you are experimenting, or want to deliberately under or overexpose.

Experiment When using negative film and commercial printing, photographs are automatically corrected as far as possible to produce "normal" exposure and colour. That memory will remain with you. Less is usually more.

Use light Light is the photographer's paint brush. A towering cliff, a high waterfall or vast beach, for example, have no dimension unless seen against something of a recognizable size, such as a person or building. Elements that are too dark (underexposed) can be corrected with printing, but elements that are too light (overexposed) are lost forever.

Give depth Depth adds a three-dimensional feel to a flat picture.